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Differences Between Linux and Windows  

2009-02-23 11:18:00|  分类: IT/Net |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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[From http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_differences_between_Windows_and_Linux]

About the Difference Between Linux and Windows:

 

1) Linux is a open-source OS.People can change code and add programs which will help to use your computer better. It's designed as a reaction on the monopoly position of windows. you can't change any thing in windows. you can't even see which processes do what and build your onw extension. Linux wants the programmers to extend and redesign it's OS time after time, so it beats Windows or at least is as good as windows, but whit open-source, so you can see what happens and you can edit the OS

 

2) All the flavors of Windows come from Microsoft, the various distributions of Linux come from different companies (i.e LIndows , Lycoris, Red Hat, SuSe, Mandrake, Knopping, Slackware).

 

3) Linux is customizable in a way that Windows is not. For example,NASlite is a version of Linux that runs off a single floppy disk and converts an old computer into a file server. This ultra small edition of Linux is capable of networking, file sharing and being a web server.

 

 

4) For desktop or home use, Linux is very cheap or free, Windows is expensive. For server use, Linux is very cheap compared to Windows. Microsoft allows a single copy of Windows to be used on only one computer. Starting with Windows XP, they use software to enforce this rule (activation). In contrast, once you have purchased Linux, you can run it on any number of computers for no additional charge.

 

5) You have to log on to Linux with a userid and password. This is not true of Windows. Typically Windows 9x does not ask for a userid/password at boot time and, even if it does, this can be easily bypassed. In general, Windows NT, 2000 and XP do require a userid/password to log on. However Windows 2000 and XP can be configured with a default userid and password so they boot directly to the Windows desktop. Windows XP, 2000 and Linux all support different types of users. Windows XP Home Edition supports Administrator class users that have full and total access to the system and restricted users that, among other restrictions, can't install software. Windows XP Pro and Windows 2000 support additional levels of users and there are groups of system privileges that can be assigned to a particular user. In Linux, the user with full and total access is called root, everyone else is a normal user. The options for Linux security privileges don't seem to me to be as robust as in Windows 2000 and XP Pro, they are focused on files and directories (can you read, update and execute files). Linux has a concept of a group of users that Windows does not, but again the privileges associated with a group are all file/directory related.

 

6) Linux has a reputation for fewer bugs than Windows.

 

7) Windows must boot from a primary partition. Linux can boot from either a primary partition or a logical partition inside an extended partition. Windows must boot from the first hard disk. Linux can boot from any hard disk in the computer.

 

8) Windows uses a hidden file for its swap file. Typically this file resides in the same partition as the OS (advanced users can opt to put the file in another partition). Linux uses a dedicated partition for its swap file (advanced users can opt to implement the swap file as a file in the same partition as the OS).

 

9) Windows uses FAT12, FAT16, FAT32 and/or NTFS with NTFS almost always being the best choice. Linux also has a number of its own native file systems. The default file systeAll the file systems use directories and subdirectories. Windows separates directories with a back slash, Linux uses a normal forward slash. Windows file names are not case sensitive. Linux file names are. For example "abc" and "aBC" are different files in Linux, whereas in Windows it would refer to the same file. Case sensitivity has been a problem for this very web page, the name of which is "Linux.vs.Windows.html". At times, people have tried to get to this page using "linux.vs.windows.html" (all lower case) which resulted in a Page Not Found error. Eventually, I created a new web page with the name in all lower case and this new page simply re-directs you to the real page, the one you are reading now (with a capital L and W). m for Linux used to be ext2, now it is typically ext3.

 

10) Windows and Linux use different concepts for their file hierarchy. Windows uses a volume-based file hierarchy, Linux uses a unified scheme. Windows uses letters of the alphabet to represent different devices and different hard disk partitions. Under Windows, you need to know what volume (C:, D:,...) a file resides on to select it, the file's physical location is part of it's name. In Linux all directories are attached to the root directory, which is identified by a forward-slash, "/". For example, below are some second-level directories: /bin/ ---- system binaries, user programs with normal user permissions /sbin --- executables that need root permission /data/ --- a user defined directory /dev/ ---- system device tree /etc/ ---- system configuration /home/ --- users' subdirectories /home/{username} akin to the Windows My Documents folder /tmp/ ---- system temporary files /usr/ ---- applications software /usr/bin - executables for programs with user permission /var/ ---- system variables /lib --- libraries needed for installed programs to run

 

11) Both support the concept of hidden files, which are files that, by default, are not shown to the user when listing files in a directory. Linux implements this with a filename that starts with a period. Windows tracks this as a file attribute in the file metadata (along with things like the last update date). In both OSs the user can over-ride the default behavior and force the system to list hidden files.

 

12) Windows started with BAT files (a combination of OS commands and optionally its own language) and then progressed to Windows Scripting Host (WSH) which supports two languages, JavaScript and VB Script. Linux, like all Unix variants, provides multiple scripting languages, referred to as shell scripts. In general, the Linux scripting languages are older and cruder than WSH but much more powerful than BAT files. They tend to use special characters instead of English commands and don't support objects (this only matters to programmers). One scripting language that can run on both Linux and Windows is PHP. It always has to be installed under Windows, it may have to be installed under Linux. PHP is typically found running on Linux based web servers in combination with Apache, but it is capable of running "client side" (on your computer).

 

13) Every computer printer ships with drivers for last last few versions of Windows (at the time it was manufactured). Running the printer on a very old or too new version of Windows may or may not work. Still, this a far better situation than with Linux which does not support as many printers as Windows. In an environment with many Linux users, shared network printers a tech support staff, this should not be an issue as you can limit yourself to well supported printers. Home users of Linux however, will no doubt suffer from the relatively poor support for printers.

 

14) Windows allows programs to store user information (files and settings) anywhere. This makes it impossibly hard to backup user data files and settings and to switch to a new computer. In contrast, Linux stores all user data in the home directory making it much easier to migrate from an old computer to a new one. If home directories are segregated in their own partition, you can even upgrade from one version of Linux to another without having to migrate user data and settings.

 

[from http://hi.baidu.com/chiangtor/blog/item/a234fb2ea70f9c554ec22646.html]

About the deb package principle:

 

deb软件包命令遵行如下约定: soft_ver-rev_arch.deb soft为软件包名称,ver为软件版本号,revUbuntu修订版本号,arch为目标架构名称

 

[from http://www.itworld21.com/articles/article.php?artiid=58]

About the fs system:

 

LinuxUNIX的文件系统是一个以“/ “为根的阶层式的树状文件结构,/ 因此被称为根目录。所有的文件和目录都置于根目录/ 之下。根目录/下面有/bin/home/usr等子目录。在早期的UNIX系统中,各个厂家各自定义了自己的UNIX系统的文件系统构成,比较混乱。

为了避免在Linux也产生同样的问题,在Linux面世不久,就开始了对Linux文件系统进行标准化的活动,于1994年推出了名为FSSTND(Filesystem Standard)Linux文件系统层次结构标准。之后,FSSTND标准吸引了UNIX社团的开发人员,他们把FSSTND扩大到UNIX系统,FSSTND就变为FHS (Filesystem Hierarchy Standard)20013月,FHS 2.2版本发布,2004129日发行了最新版本2.3

 

FHS标准使得众多的Linux发布包有了可以遵循的标准,使得软件和用户可以预测已经安装了的文件和目录的位置。它定义了如下的内容。

定义了文件系统中每个区域的用途

定义了所需要的最小构成的文件和目录

给出了例外处理和矛盾的特殊例子

 

目录内容和用途

 

/ 根目录

 

/bin 一般用户使用的命令

/boot 放置内核及LILOGRUB等导引程序(bootloader)的文件,用于启动。

/dev 硬盘,分区,键盘,鼠标,USBtty等所有的设备文件都放在这个目录。

/etc 系统的所有配置文件都存放在此目录中。

/home 用户空间,所有的用户都是用此空间。

/lib 共享连接库,如C库和C编译器等等。

/media 挂接CD-ROM等设备的目录

/mnt 移动设备文件系统的挂点

/opt 存放后来追加的用户应用程序

 

/root 管理员之家

/sbin 存放系统管理所需要的命令

/tmp 临时文件目录,重新启动时被清除

/usr 存放只能读的命令和其他文件。

/usr/X11R6 X Window系统

/usr/bin 用户和管理员的标准命令

/usr/include c/c++等各种开发语言环境的标准include文件

/usr/lib 应用程序及程序包的连接库

/usr/local/ 系统管理员安装的应用程序目录

/usr/local/share 系统管理员安装的共享文件

/usr/sbin 用户和管理员的标准命令

/usr/share 存放使用手册等共享文件的目录

/usr/share/dict 存放词表的目录(选项)

/usr/share/man 系统使用手册

/usr/share/misc 一般数据

/usr/share/sgml SGML数据(选项)

/usr/share/xml XML数据(选项)

 

/var 存放应用程序数据和日志记录的目录,例如,Apache Web服务器的文档一般就放在/var/www/html下。

/var/cache 应用程序缓存目录

/var/account 处理账号日志(选项)

/var/crash 系统错误信息(选项)

/var/games 游戏数据

/var/lib  各种状态数据

/var/lock 文件锁定纪录

/var/log 日志记录

/var/mail 电子邮件

/var/opt /opt目录的变量数据

/var/run 进程的标示数据

/var/spool 存放电子邮件,打印任务等的队列目录。

/var/spool/rwho 

/var/tmp 临时文件目录

/var/yp NIS等黄页数据(选项)

 

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